Mesenchymal stem cells collected from the cord tissue loose their stemness after prolonged  culture, according to the below publication. So we must collect the mesenchymal stem cells from the whole length  of the cord and do not cryopreserve the cord in pieces,  without previous extraction of the cells.  Proliferation of the cells  to reach the appropriate number of cells, according to the weight of the patient, does not be safe and effective for therapies. 

Identification of senescent cells in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell cultures: Current methods and future directions  

WEICHAO Zhai,DERRICK YONG,JEHAN JOMAA EL-JAWHARI, RICHARD CUTHBERTDENNIS MCGONAGLE,MAY WIN NAING. ELENA JONESDOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2019.05.001

Regardless of their tissue of origin, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are commonly expanded in vitro for several population doublings to achieve a sufficient number of cells for therapy. Prolonged MSC expansion has been shown to result in phenotypical, morphological and gene expression changes in MSCs, which ultimately lead to the state of senescence. The presence of senescent cells in therapeutic MSC batches is undesirable because it reduces their viability, differentiation potential and trophic capabilities. Additionally, senescent cells acquire senescence-activated secretory phenotype, which may not only induce apoptosis in the neighboring host cells following MSC transplantation, but also trigger local inflammatory reactions. This review outlines the current and promising new methodologies for the identification of senescent cells in MSC cultures, with a particular emphasis on non-destructive and label-free methodologies. Technologies allowing identification of individual senescent cells, based on new surface markers, offer potential advantage for targeted senescent cell removal using new-generation senolytic agents, and subsequent production of therapeutic MSC batches fully devoid of senescent cells. Methods or a combination of methods that are non-destructive and label-free, for example, involving cell size and spectroscopic measurements, could be the best way forward because they do not modify the cells of interest, thus maximizing the final output of therapeutic-grade MSC cultures. The further incorporation of machine learning methods has also recently shown promise in facilitating, automating and enhancing the analysis of these measured data.

Key Words:

label-freemultipotent mesenchymal stromal cellsnon-destructivereplicative agingsenescence

 

Identification of senescent cells in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell cultures: Current methods and future directions

WEICHAO Zhai,DERRICK YONG,JEHAN JOMAA EL-JAWHARI, RICHARD CUTHBERT

DENNIS MCGONAGLE,MAY WIN NAING. ELENA JONESDOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2019.05.001

Abstract

Regardless of their tissue of origin, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are commonly expanded in vitro for several population doublings to achieve a sufficient number of cells for therapy. Prolonged MSC expansion has been shown to result in phenotypical, morphological and gene expression changes in MSCs, which ultimately lead to the state of senescence. The presence of senescent cells in therapeutic MSC batches is undesirable because it reduces their viability, differentiation potential and trophic capabilities. Additionally, senescent cells acquire senescence-activated secretory phenotype, which may not only induce apoptosis in the neighboring host cells following MSC transplantation, but also trigger local inflammatory reactions. This review outlines the current and promising new methodologies for the identification of senescent cells in MSC cultures, with a particular emphasis on non-destructive and label-free methodologies. Technologies allowing identification of individual senescent cells, based on new surface markers, offer potential advantage for targeted senescent cell removal using new-generation senolytic agents, and subsequent production of therapeutic MSC batches fully devoid of senescent cells. Methods or a combination of methods that are non-destructive and label-free, for example, involving cell size and spectroscopic measurements, could be the best way forward because they do not modify the cells of interest, thus maximizing the final output of therapeutic-grade MSC cultures. The further incorporation of machine learning methods has also recently shown promise in facilitating, automating and enhancing the analysis of these measured data.

Key Words:

label-freemultipotent mesenchymal stromal cellsnon-destructivereplicative agingsenescence

 

HEALTH NEWS

AUG. 6, 2019 / 12:05 PM

Stem cell treatment may reverse heart attack damage

Byheart

Tauren Dyson

 (0) 

Researchers have developed a stem cell method to grow new tissue that can repair the harm caused by a heart attack. File Photo by Photographee.eu/Shutterstock

Aug. 6 (UPI) -- Surviving a heart attack is good, but the resulting damage can lead to potentially deadly organ damage. While the heart does not regenerate tissue on its own, researchers may have a way of repairing damage with new tissue.

Researchers have developed a method of growing tissue outside the body using stem cell that can repair the harm caused by a heart attack, according to research published Monday in the journal Circulation. Following a heart attack, the organ can't regenerate tissue killed off by the event. This dead tissue can ultimately lead to lethal heart enlargement."To our knowledge," the researchers said in a press release, "this is the first study to show that DNA damage-free induced pluripotent stem cells can be selected by p53 activation in induced pluripotent stem cell cultures and that DNA damage-free cardiomyocytes have enhanced cardiac engraftment potential."The researchers say they can grow damage-free pluripotent stem cells outside of the body, then add those cells near the point of cell death. In a clinical setting, they say this approach has improved the ability of the heart's left ventricle to pump blood. For the study, the researchers used MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a to activate transcription factor p53 within the pluripotent stem cells. This treatment killed off cells with DNA damage while skipping over the healthy ones, which were cultured and then differentiated into cardiomyocytes. The researchers injected 900,000 cardiomyocytes into the sides of the left ventricles of mice who had heart attacks. After four weeks, the engraftment worked on about 14 percent of the hearts compared to only 7 percent in engraftments made with control derived cardiomyocytes. "As this is a small molecule-based approach to select DNA damage-free cells," said Ramaswamy Kannappan, a researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and study senior author. "It can be applied to any type of stem cells, though selection conditions would need to be optimized and evaluated. Other stem cell approaches for diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, brain and spinal cord injuries, and diabetes might benefit by adopting our method."

1th Congress of the Hellenic Society of study of Regenerative Medicine

The work of the 1st Congress of the Hellenic Society of study of Regenerative Medicine which takes place in Thessaloniki Greece on 21-22/6/2019, was successfully completed. The conference was attended by doctors of various specialties, researchers and students. The conference topics covered the basic cells science, applications in each medical specialty and their combination with biomaterials for their placement in the body. Regenerative medicine is a new branch of medical science with applications aimed at less invasive and more personalized therapies in dealing with  degenerative diseases and increasing life expectancy. Cellular therapies and stem cells derivatives combined with biomaterials are the core field of regenerative medicine. For the initial concept of developing the industry in 1992 to date, several therapies include applications for wound healing, aesthetics and orthopedics have already been established, and many others concerning other medical specialties are in clinical testing. The conference was attended by 62 speakers for Greece and abroad, who presented their research and experience in the use of stem cells. Biohellenika participated in the conference with five speakers and was a co-organizer. Three postdoctoral students and one PhD candidate whose doctoral thesis was supported by Biohellenika presented the results of their research. An Associate Professor at the Mashhad University of Iran, a PhD and postdoctoral researcher at the Medical School of Aristotle University whose research was supported by Biohellenika, was one of the central speakers. The stem cell applications he makes in his country have international appeal. The Society of the study of Regenerative Medicine was founded in 2010 and its headquarters are in Thessaloniki. It supports a Postgraduate Program in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece, which will hire the first students in September 2019.

 

 

Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening Test for Sickle Cell Appears Possible, Study Reports

 JULY 11, 2019

BY PATRICIA INACIO, PHD

 A non-invasive prenatal test to diagnose a risk of sickle cell disease in a baby is possible and may be available in clinics in a near future, if further testing confirms its efficacy, researchers in the U.K. report.

Julia van Campen presented the first results of the non-invasive test in the presentation “Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disease by next generation sequencing of cell-free DNA” at the recent 2019 European Human Genetics Conference in Gothenburg, Sweden.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disease, meaning that a child has to inherit two mutated copies of the hemoglobin gene to develop it — one from each parent. If both parents have sickle cell trait, there is a 25 percent chance the child will have SCD.

Without early diagnosis and treatment, the life expectancy of children with SCD is only a few years.

Currently, sickle cell can only be diagnosed during pregnancy using an invasive test like amniocentesis that carries a risk, although small, of miscarriage, leading some parents to decline it. An earlier survey showed that if patients had the option of a non-invasive test, more would choose screening for the possibility of SCD.

“However, many couples are unaware that they are at risk until pregnancy occurs, even though carrier testing and follow-up genetic counseling is available through the UK National Health Service for those who are concerned that they may carry SCD,” Julia van Campen, a researcher at Guy’s and St Thomas, said in a press release. “It is important to raise awareness of SCD, which currently is limited.”

Researchers at Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust and Viapath Analytics, London, developed a non-invasive prenatal screening test that analyses the fetal DNA that circulates freely in the mother’s blood to determine the risk of her baby having SCD.

The test was developed in collaboration with the healthcare company Nonacus Ltd. in Birmingham.

“Although cell-free fetal DNA testing is already available for some disorders, technical difficulties have hampered the development of such a test for SCD, despite it being one of the most commonly requested prenatal tests in the UK, ” van Campen said.

Researchers analyzed blood samples from 24 pregnant carrying a mutated copy of the hemoglobin gene, and as such were sickle cell carriers. The scientists optimized their method to enrich the samples for the fetal DNA, and used a molecular barcode to identify the mutant and normal gene.

They successfully diagnosed SCD in 21 out of the 24 pregnancies using blood samples retrieved as early as eight weeks’ gestation. In the other three samples, results were inconclusive.

The test is undergoing further research to confirm its diagnostics potential before it might be brought into clinical practice. For regular use, the test needs to be not only reliable, but also fast and affordable.

“I am excited that this work has given better results than I had expected, and am hopeful that people will be able to build on this work to make this test available in the near future,” said van Campen.

“The development of non-invasive genetic tests that can be safely used during pregnancy is important to identify fetuses with severe disorders,” said professor Joris Veltman, director of the Institute of Genetic Medicine at Newcastle University and chair of the ESHG conference.

“These scientists have developed a novel state-of-the art genomics approach to do this for sickle cell disease in couples at risk. Their first results … indicate that their test is very promising,” Veltman added.

This approach might also aid in diagnosing similar disorders in a fetus. “We demonstrate that NIPD [non-invasive prenatal test] for sickle cell disease is approaching clinical utility. Other autosomal recessive disorders may benefit from a similar approach,” the study concluded.

 

 

A new drug to treat spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Friday will come with a price tag of $2.1 million, making it the most expensive medicine in the world.

The drug, called Zolgensma, treats SMA, a genetic disease that causes debilitating muscle weakness and paralysis, and is a leading cause of infant mortality.

The high price tag is the latest illustration of how innovative drugs, while holding immense promise for improving the lives of the patients who need them, also pose a financial burden on the health care system through their cost.

The maker of the drug, Novartis, argued on Friday that the cost is still less than what it costs to treat people with SMA, which the company said was $4.1 million over 10 years.

"Zolgensma is a historic advance for the treatment of SMA and a landmark one-time gene therapy,” said Vas Narasimhan, Novartis’s CEO. “Our goal is to ensure broad patient access to this transformational medicine and to share value with the healthcare system.”

A top FDA official said the drug provides the opportunity for improved care for people with SMA.

“Children with SMA experience difficulty performing essential functions of life. Most children with this disease do not survive past early childhood due to respiratory failure,” Peter Marks, director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, said in a statement. “Patients with SMA now have another treatment option to minimize the progression of SMA and improve survival.”

The drug will treat children under the age of two.

https://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/445451-fda-approves-worlds-most-expensive-drug-at-%242.1M

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