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Dentolife - Νεογιλά δόντια


stem cells




Biohellenika today gives a second chance to children that have not cryopreserved stem cells from the umbilical cord blood to store stem cells from deciduous teeth, which from the age of 5-6 year old are replaced.

These cells today are in experimental studies for regenerative medicine.

The aim of this service is the collection and cryopreservation of the valuable biological source of stem cells for the children that have not collected their stem cells during birth or that have been used for therapeutic purposes. The deciduous teeth that are used for this purpose are highlighted in the following diagram in red.

The service also concerns adults that want to use their wisdom teeth as a source of collection, process and cryopreservation of stem cells for therapeutic use. Furthermore teeth that are extracted for orthodontic purposes can  be used for the isolation of stem cells.

The discovery that was done in 2003 from a scientific team of the Department of National Institute of Health of the United States (N.I.H.) gives the opportunity to parents that lost the chance to store their childrens’ stem cells during birth to ask for the preservation of this valuable material that is found in deciduous teeth.

Types of stem cells that are found in the dental pulp.

The deciduous teeth inside contains the dental pulp, which is rich in stem cells. The discovery of these cells open a new field of research, that explores the possibilities of use these cells in therapeutic applications in the near future, in parallel or complementary to those of the umbilical cord stem cells.

Τhe pulp of deciduous teeth contains:

Odontoblasts, the cells which create the pulp and the dentine of the tooth

Mesenchymal stem cells which can be implanted into any other organ or tissue and reinforce its defense and regenerating function

Endothelial cells and also migrating blood cells.

Today is generally acceptable, that stem cells derived from deciduous teeth can have in the near future clinical applications similar to those of the stem cells of the bone marrow and the umbilical cord blood.

Diseases that are intended to be treated with dental pulp stem cells are:

Dental diseases

Pulp regeneration

Development a whole new viable teeth

Dentin regeneration, by fixing the caries

Tissue regeneration

Improvement of cardiac function after heart attack, by stem cell implantation into the infarcted area

Treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

Osteoarthritis, cartilage and fascia regeneration

Bone fracture healing

Use as grafts in Maxillofacial Surgery of jaw or bone defects

biohellenikaWHY IS THE VIRUS DANGEROUS?

  • Cervical carcinoma is the second most common type of cancer in women genital system, after ovary cancer.
  • HPV infections is the main cause of cervical cancer.
  • Nearly 471,000 new cases are reported annually, and 233,000 deaths [1,2]. In Europe approximately 60,000 new cases and nearly 30,000 deaths are recorded annually, while in Greece 8,0000 new cases are reported annually [3].

HOW IS THE VIRUS TRANSMITTED?

  • HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Approximately 75-80% of women and men are infected with HPV at some time over the course of their lives.
  • The frequency peak for detectable HPV infections lies in the age group between 20 and 25 years.
  • An HPV infection is in most cases eliminated by the body’s immune system over a time period of about 8 to 14 months.
  • In most cases the infection is asymptomatic and the carrier does not know that she/he has been infected by the virus.
  • Exposure to HPV does not necessarily mean malignancy occurrence [5-9].

WHICH VIRAL TYPES ARE KNOWN TODAY?

  • Well over 100 HPV types are known thus far, divided in high and low risk. The classification is made according to their propensity to trigger cancer growth [10].
  • High-risk types cause precancerous stages (dysplasias, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, CIN) and cancer. These are 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73 and 82. They are identified in 99.7% of all cases of cervical carcinoma. A majority of cervical carcinoma cases (approx. 70%) are triggered by just two hr-HPV types: HPV type 16 (53.5%) and HPV type 18 (17.2%)
  • The ability of the virus to create tumor is increased, when multiple infections are present, with different HPV types.
  • The most common low risk HPV types are 6, 11, 40, 42, 43 και 44 [11].

MOLECULAR TESTING ADVANTAGES

Molecular test, detection and genotyping of the virus is the most modern and reliable diagnosis method. It should be applied in combination with annual PAP-test in women of over of 30 years of age. Molecular testing is necessary, since PAP-test can detect only cervical damages and not the cause of the cancer.

Therefore, a molecular test that can quickly and reliably detect multiple HPV genotypes in cervical smear becomes a necessity. Early detection of the virus and monitoring of the infection is important, in order to avoid cancer. Negative result deriving from a molecular test offers the possibility of vaccinations against high risk HPV in women of all age.

Biohellenika S.A. offers the service of molecular detection and genotyping of HPV with the method of DNA microarrays (PapilloCheck – CE-IVD).

PapilloCheck is considered the most indicated way of detection and genotyping of HPV because:

  • PapilloCheck is based on the most advanced diagnostic technologies of Molecular Biology. In specific, it is based on HPV-DNA hybridization on DNA-chips (Biochips). It is the only system based on DNA-MicroArrays.
  • This technology allows for fast, reliable and highly sensitive (98%) detection of multiple HPV infections. In contrast, other methods fail to detect accurately multiple (over two) infections.
  • Papillocheck is suitable for detection and genotyping of 24 viral types, 18 of which are classified as high risk and six as low risk, as already mentioned.
  • Papillocheck is one of the few methods for HPV genotyping that is certified in the European Union (CE) as an in vitro diagnostic (IVD) for the qualitative type-specific identification of 24 human papillomavirus types from a cervical smear [12].

SAMPLING

HPV test is applied in cervical smear, collected with a special sterilized swab, offered for free by Biohellenika (after communication). The swab must be sent in our labs within 48 hours, while, until then, it is stored at 4°C.

References

1. Parkin D.M. et al. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J. Clin. 2005, 55(2):74-108.

2. Ferlay J. et al. GLOBOCAN 2002: Cancer Incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, version 2.0 IARC; Cancer Bases No. 5, Lyon, IARC, 2004.

3. Boyle P. et al.; Cancer incidence and mortality in Europe, 2004;Ann. Oncol. 2005, 16(3):481-88.

4. Gesellschaft der epidemiologischen Krebsregister in Deutschland e.V. (GEKID) in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Robert Koch-Institut (RKI); Krebs in Deutschland, Häufigkeiten und Trends; 5. überarbeitete, aktualisierte Ausgabe, 2006.

5. Ho G.Y.F. et al. Natural history of cervicovaginal papillomavirus infection in young women; N. Engl. J. Med. 1998, 338:423-428.

6. Bosch F.X., de Sanjosé S.; Chapter 1: Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer - burden and assessment of causality; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 2003, 31:3-13.

7. Winer R.L., Lee S.K., Hughes J.P., Adam D.E., Kiviat N.B., Koutsky L.A. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students; Am. J. Epidemiol. 2003, 157:218-226.

8. Brown D.R. et al. A longitudinal study of genital human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of closely followed adolescent women; J. Infect. Dis. 2005, 191:182-192.

9. Evander M. et al. Human papillomavirus infection is transient in young women: a population-based cohort study; J. Infect. Dis. 1995, 171:1026-1030.

10. Muñoz N., Bosch F.X., de Sanjosé S., Herrero R., Castellsague X., Shah K.V., Snijders P.J., Meijer C.J.; International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group: Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer; N. Engl. J. Med. 2003, 348:518-527.

11. Muñoz N., Bosch F.X., Castellsagué X., Diaz M., de Sanjosé S., Hammouda D., Shah K.V., Meijer C.J. Against which human papillomavirus types shall we vaccinate and screen? The international perspective; Int. J. Cancer 2004, 111:278-285.

12. Dalstein V., Merlin S., Bali C., Saunier M., Dachez R. and Ronsin C. Analytical evaluation of the PapilloCheck test, a new commercial DNA chip for detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus. J. Vir. Methods 2009,156:77-83.

New!

Biohellenika offers a complete testing program related to prenatal and postnatal control as well as tests related to infertility. These tests include karyotype and FISH to detect abnormalities of the chromosomes and tests for cistic fibrosis, thrombofilia, viral, parasitic and bacterial infections. The samples testes are: amniotic fluid, chorionic villi, material of miscarriages, fetal blood and peripheral blood.

 

Indications of prenatal screening include:

Ø Maternal age >35

Ø Ultrasound fetal abnormalities (eg indications for Down Syndrome)

Ø Increased risk of abnormalities portrayed in the biochemical control of the 1rst and second trimester.

Ø Parents who are carriers of chromosomal abnormalities

Ø Previous birth of a child with chromosomal abnormality

Ø Intrauterine death

Ø Determination of the sex in sex-linked diseases

Ø Spontaneous miscarriage

Ø Increased anxiety of the mother

 

Indications of postnatal control include:

Ø Infertility

Ø Recurrent miscarriages

Ø Medical history of intrauterine death or of previous child with birth defects.

Ø Apparent/visible congenital abnormalities

Ø Absence or delay of the development of the characteristics of the sex.

Ø Primary amenorrhea

 

The examinations of infertility include:

Ø FV-Leiden, F 2 (prothrombin), homocystinemia (MTHFR)

Ø Viral infections (herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus)

Ø Chlamydia, mycoplasma, naiseries

Ø Toxoplasma, B-streptococcus

 

The laboratories of biohellenika are accredited by ESYD (National Accreditation System). All tests are performed by qualified molecular biologists and evaluated by physicians specialized in Genetic Centers abroad with which they maintain partnerships. Apart from the tests mentioned above, other more specific tests can be conducted upon request. The information provided is valuable for the prognosis of the person with the abnormality, its relatives, future pregnancies and future generations.

KARYOTYPE AND FISH-INFERTILITY

Biohellenika offers a complete testing program related to prenatal and postnatal control as well as tests related to infertility. These tests include karyotype and FISH to detect abnormalities of the chromosomes and tests for cistic fibrosis,  thrombofilia, viral, parasitic and bacterial infections. The samples testes are: amniotic fluid, chorionic villi, material of miscarriages, fetal blood and peripheral blood.

Indications of prenatal screening include:

  • Maternal age >35
  • Ultrasound fetal abnormalities (eg indications for Down Syndrome)
  • Increased risk of abnormalities portrayed in the biochemical control of the 1rst and second trimester.
  • Parents who are carriers of chromosomal abnormalities
  • Previous birth of a child with chromosomal abnormality
  • Intrauterine death
  • Determination of the sex in sex-linked diseases
  • Spontaneous miscarriage
  • Increased anxiety of the mother

Indications of postnatal control include:

  • Infertility
  • Recurrent miscarriages
  • Medical history of intrauterine death or of previous child with birth defects.
  • Apparent/visible congenital abnormalities
  • Absence or delay of the development of the characteristics of the sex.
  • Primary amenorrhea

The examinations of infertility include:

  • FV-Leiden, F 2 (prothrombin), homocystinemia (MTHFR)
  • Viral infections (herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus)
  • Chlamydia, mycoplasma, naiseries
  • Toxoplasma, B-streptococcus

The laboratories of biohellenika are accredited by ESYD (National Accreditation System). All tests are performed by qualified molecular biologists and evaluated by physicians specialized in Genetic Centers abroad with which they maintain partnerships. Apart from the tests mentioned above, other more specific tests can be conducted upon request. The information provided is valuable for the prognosis of the person with the abnormality, its relatives, future pregnancies and future generations.

pregnant

Infertility tests

Biohellenika has built an up-to-date molecular analysis laboratory, which is capable of testing man and woman infertility. In our laboratory, microbial agents related to genital infections, such as Chlamydia, Toxoplasma, Ureoplasma and other microbes as well as viruses such as HPV, are being analyzed. These tests are conducted with the method of Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) and detect the very own DNA of the pathogens, which means their presence in the genital system at the moment of sampling. RT-PCR is a more reliable method, compared to antibody detection, which in some viral infections may take months. Hence false negative results are avoided and treatment as well as suitability of the medicine can be evaluated.


vlast biohellenika

Thrombophilia tests

In cases of repeated miscarriages, pathologic genes responsible for blood coagulation may be triggered and therefore should be tested. These tests are very important, because they protect the mother from thrombotic cases during pregnancy, labor or even later.

biohellenika

Cardiovascular diseases tests

Patients with family history of heart attacks in early age are tested for carrying pathologic genes, associated with cholesterol metabolism and lipids in general, as well as for factors that may cause cardiovascular diseases. The “gene profile” of these patients can provide them with important information about their future. This information in combination with appropriate instructions and medical treatment can result in avoidance of life threatening cases.

So, Biohellenika offers the possibility of detecting the predisposition for cardiovascular diseases, which include a series of complicated damages not only in the heart, but also in the vessels. Such diseases are the major death cause in the advanced countries. Nowadays, the genetic factors that partake in thrombosis and arterial pressure rise mechanisms are known. Some of the diseases associated with pathologic genes are the following:

Diseases

Severe vascular thrombosis

Coronary disease

Acute heart attack

Hypertension

Hereditary thrombophilia

Thromboembolic disease

Increased cholesterol levels in plasma

Current Stem Cell Applications

  • Bone Marrow Failure Disorders

Amegakaryocytosis

Aplastic Anemia (Severe)

Blackfan-Diamond Anemia

Congenital Cytopenia*

Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia

Dyskeratosis Congenita

Fanconi Anemia

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)

Pure Red Cell Aplasia

 

  • Hemoblobinopathies

Beta Thalassemia Major

Sickle Cell Disease

 

  • Histiocytic Disorders

Familial Erythrophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

Hemophagocytosis

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X)

 

  • Inherited Immune System Disorders

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Congenital Neutropenia

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency

Severe Combined Immunodeficiencies (SCID) including:

Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency*

Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome

Chediak-Higashi Syndrome*

Kostmann Syndrome

Omenn Syndrome

Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency

Reticular Dysgenesis

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disorder

 

  • Inherited Metabolic Disorders

Adrenoleukodystrophy

Fucosidosis

Gaucher Disease*

Hunter Syndrome (MPS-II)

Hurler Syndrome (MPS-IH)

Krabbe Disease

Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

Mannosidosis*

Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome (MPS-VI)

Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

Mucolipidosis II (I-cell Disease)*

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (Batten Disease)*

Niemann-Pick Disease*

Sandhoff Disease*

Sanfilippo Syndrome (MPS-III)

Scheie Syndrome (MPS-IS)

Sly Syndrome

Tay Sachs*

Wolman Disease

 

  • Leukemias and Lymphomas

Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia*

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia*

Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

Hodgkins Lymphoma

Juvenile Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (JCML)

Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)

Myeloid/Natural Killer (NK) Cell Precursor Acute Leukemia

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Polymphocytic Leukemia

 

  • Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Disorders

Acute Myelofibrosis*

Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia (Myelofibrosis)*

Amyloidosis

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)

Essential Thrombocythemia*

Polycythemia Vera*

Refractory Anemias (RA) including:

Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts (RAEB)

Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts in Transformation (RAEB-T)

Refractory Anemia with Ringed Sideroblasts (RARS)

 

  • Plasma Cell Disorders

Multiple Myeloma

Plasma Cell Leukemia

Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia

Other Inherited Disorders

Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia

Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (Gunther Disease)

DiGeorge Syndrome 

Osteopetrosis

 

  • Other Malignancies

Brain Tumors**

Ewing Sarcoma*

Neuroblastoma

Ovarian Cancer*

Renal Cell Carcinoma*

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Small Cell Lung Cancer*

Testicular Cancer*

Thymoma (Thymic Carcinoma)

 

  • Other

Chronic Active Epstein Barr

Evans Syndrome

Multiple Sclerosis*

Rheumatoid Arthritis*

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus*

Thymic Dysplasia

 

* in clinical trials,  www. clinicaltrials.gov

 

Emerging Stem Cell Applications

 

Diabetes

Heart Disease

Liver Disease

Muscular Dystrophy

Parkinsons Disease

Spinal cord injury

Stroke

 

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